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Tutorials

Devices

Creating a device

To create a libmapper device, it is necessary to provide a few parameters the constructor:

mapper::Device dev( const char *name, mapper.Admin admin );
mapper::Device dev( std::string name, mapper.Admin admin );

In regular usage only the first argument is needed. The optional "admin" parameter can be used to specify different networking parameters, such as specifying the name of the network interface to use.

An example of creating a device:

mapper::Device dev( "test" );

Polling the device

The device lifecycle looks like this, in terrible ASCII diagram art:

creation --> poll --+--> destruction
              |     |
              +--<--+

In other words, after a device is created, it must be continuously polled during its lifetime.

The polling is necessary for several reasons: to respond to requests on the admin bus; to check for incoming signals; to update outgoing signals. Therefore even a device that does not have signals must be polled. The user program must organize to have a timer or idle handler which can poll the device often enough. Polling interval is not extremely sensitive, but should be at least 100 ms or less. The faster it is polled, the faster it can handle incoming and outgoing signals.

The poll() function can be blocking or non-blocking, depending on how you want your application to behave. It takes an optional number of milliseconds during which it should do some work before returning:

int dev.poll( int block_ms );

An example of calling it with non-blocking behaviour:

dev.poll();

If your polling is in the middle of a processing function or in response to a GUI event for example, non-blocking behaviour is desired. On the other hand if you put it in the middle of a loop which reads incoming data at intervals or steps through a simulation for example, you can use poll() as your "sleep" function, so that it will react to network activity while waiting.

It returns the number of messages handled, so optionally you could continue to call it until there are no more messages waiting. Of course, you should be careful doing that without limiting the time it will loop for, since if the incoming stream is fast enough you might never get anything else done!

Note that an important difference between blocking and non-blocking polling is that during the blocking period, messages will be handled immediately as they are received. On the other hand, if you use your own sleep, messages will be queued up until you can call poll(); stated differently, it will "time-quantize" the message handling. This is not necessarily bad, but you should be aware of this effect.

Since there is a delay before the device is completely initialized, it is sometimes useful to be able to determine this using ready(). Only when dev.ready() returns non-zero is it valid to use the device's name.

Signals

Now that we know how to create a device, poll it, and free it, we only need to know how to add signals in order to give our program some input/output functionality.

We'll start with creating a "sender", so we will first talk about how to update output signals.

Creating a signal

A signal requires a bit more information than a device, much of which is optional:

for input signals there is an additional argument:

examples:

mapper::Signal sig_in = dev.add_input( "/my_input", 1, 'f', "m/s", 0, 0, h )

int min[4] = {1,2,3,4};
int max[4] = {10,11,12,13};
mapper::Signal sig_out = dev.add_output( "/my_output", 4, 'i', 0, min, max )

The only required parameters here are the signal "length", its name, and data type. Signals are assumed to be vectors of values, so for usual single-valued signals, a length of 1 should be specified. A signal name should start with "/", as this is how it is represented in the OSC address. (One will be added if you forget to do this.) Finally, supported types are currently 'i', 'f', or 'd' (specified as characters in C, not strings), for int, float, or double values, respectively.

The other parameters are not strictly required, but the more information you provide, the more the mapper can do some things automatically. For example, if minimum and maximum are provided, it will be possible to create linear-scaled connections very quickly. If unit is provided, the mapper will be able to similarly figure out a linear scaling based on unit conversion (from centimeters to inches for example). Currently automatic unit-based scaling is not a supported feature, but will be added in the future. You can take advantage of this future development by simply providing unit information whenever it is available. It is also helpful documentation for users.

Notice that optional values are provided as void* pointers. This is because a signal can either be int, float or double, and your maximum and minimum values should correspond in type. So you should pass in a int*, *float or *double by taking the address of a local variable.

Lastly, it is usually necessary to be informed when input signal values change. This is done by providing a function to be called whenever its value is modified by an incoming message. It is passed in the handler parameter, with context information to be passed to that function during callback in user_data.

An example of creating a "barebones" int scalar output signal with no unit, minimum, or maximum information:

mapper::Signal outputA = dev.add_output( "/outA", 1, 'i', 0, 0, 0 );

An example of a float signal where some more information is provided:

float minimum = 0.0f;
float maximum = 5.0f;
mapper::Signal sensor1_voltage = mdev.add_output( "/sensor1", 1, 'f',
                                                  "V", &minimum, &maximum );

So far we know how to create a device and to specify an output signal for it. To recap, let's review the code so far:

mapper::Device dev( "test_sender");
mapper::Signal sensor1_voltage = dev( "/sensor1", 1, 'f', "V",
                                      &minimum, &maximum );

while ( !done ) {
    dev.poll( 50 );
    ... do stuff ...
    ... update signals ...
}

It is possible to retrieve a device's inputs or outputs by name or by index at a later time using the functions dev.input() or dev.output() with either the signal name or index as an argument. The functions dev.inputs() and dev.outputs() return an object of type mapper::Signal::Iterator which can be used to retrieve all of the input/output signals belonging to a particular device:

std::cout << "Signals belonging to " << dev.name() << std::endl;

mapper::Signal::Iterator iter = dev.inputs().begin();
for (; iter != dev.inputs().end(); iter++) {
    std::cout << "input: " << (*iter).full_name() << std::endl;
}

Updating signals

We can imagine the above program getting sensor information in a loop. It could be running on an network-enable ARM device and reading the ADC register directly, or it could be running on a computer and reading data from an Arduino over a USB serial port, or it could just be a mouse-controlled GUI slider. However it's getting the data, it must provide it to libmapper so that it will be sent to other devices if that signal is mapped.

This is accomplished by the update() function:

void sig.update( void *value,
                 int count,
                 mapper.Timetag timetag );

The count and timetag arguments can be ommited, and the update() function is overloaded to accept scalars, arrays, and vectors as appropriate for the datatype and lengthof the signal in question. In other words, if the signal is a 10-vector of int, then value should point to an array or vector of 10 ints. If it is a scalar float, it should be provided with a float variable. The count argument allows you to specify the number of value samples that are being updated - for now we will set this to 1. Lastly the timetag argument allows you to specify a time associated with the signal update. If your value update was generated locally, or if your program does not have access to upstream timing information (e.g., from a microcontroller sampling sensor values), you can omit the argument and libmapper will tag the update with the current time.

So in the "sensor 1 voltage" example, assuming in "do stuff" we have some code which reads sensor 1's value into a float variable called v1, the loop becomes:

while ( !done ) {
    dev.poll( 50 );
    float v1 = read_sensor_1();
    sensor1_voltage.update( v1 );
}

This is about all that is needed to expose sensor 1's voltage to the network as a mappable parameter. The libmapper GUI can now map this value to a receiver, where it could control a synthesizer parameter or change the brightness of an LED, or whatever else you want to do.

Signal conditioning

Most synthesizers of course will not know what to do with "voltage"--it is an electrical property that has nothing to do with sound or music. This is where libmapper really becomes useful.

Scaling or other signal conditioning can be taken care of before exposing the signal, or it can be performed as part of the mapping. Since the end user can demand any mathematical operation be performed on the signal, he can perform whatever mappings between signals as he wishes.

As a developer, it is therefore your job to provide information that will be useful to the end user.

For example, if sensor 1 is a position sensor, instead of publishing "voltage", you could convert it to centimeters or meters based on the known dimensions of the sensor, and publish a "/sensor1/position" signal instead, providing the unit information as well.

We call such signals "semantic", because they provide information with more meaning than a relatively uninformative value based on the electrical properties of the sensing technqiue. Some sensors can benefit from low-pass filtering or other measures to reduce noise. Some sensors may need to be combined in order to derive physical meaning. What you choose to expose as outputs of your device is entirely application-dependent.

You can even publish both "/sensor1/position" and "/sensor1/voltage" if desired, in order to expose both processed and raw data. Keep in mind that these will not take up significant processing time, and zero network bandwidth, if they are not mapped.

Receiving signals

Now that we know how to create a sender, it would be useful to also know how to receive signals, so that we can create a sender-receiver pair to test out the provided mapping functionality.

As mentioned above, the add_input() function takes an optional handler and user_data. This is a function that will be called whenever the value of that signal changes. To create a receiver for a synthesizer parameter "pulse width" (given as a ratio between 0 and 1), specify a handler when calling add_input(). We'll imagine there is some C++ synthesizer implemented as a class Synthesizer which has functions setPulseWidth() which sets the pulse width in a thread-safe manner, and startAudioInBackground() which sets up the audio thread.

Create the handler function, which is fairly simple,

void pulsewidth_handler ( mapper::Signal msig,
                          int instance_id,
                          void *value,
                          int count,
                          mapper::Timetag tt )
{
    Synthesizer *s = (Synthesizer*) msig.properties()->user_data;
    s->setPulseWidth( *(float*)v );
}

First, the pointer to the Synthesizer instance is extracted from the user_data pointer, then it is dereferenced to set the pulse width according to the value pointed to by v.

Then main() will look like,

void main()
{
    Synthesizer synth;
    synth.startAudioInBackground();

    float min_pw = 0.0f;
    float max_pw = 1.0f;

    mapper::Device my_receiver( "test_receiver" );

    mapper::Signal synth_pulsewidth =
        dev.add_input( "/synth/pulsewidth", 1, 'f', 0, &min_pw,
                       &max_pw, pulsewidth_handler, &synth );

    while ( !done )
        dev.poll( 50 );
}

Working with timetags

libmapper uses the Timetag data structure to store NTP timestamps. For example, the handler function called when a signal update is received contains a timetag argument. This argument indicates the time at which the source signal was sampled (in the case of sensor signals) or generated (in the case of sequenced or algorithimically-generated signals).

When updating output signals, using the function update() without a timetag argument will automatically label the outgoing signal update with the current time. In cases where the update should more properly be labeled with another time, this can be accomplished by including the timetag argument. This timestamp should only be overridden if your program has access to a more accurate measurement of the real time associated with the signal update, for example if you are writing a driver for an outboard sensor system that provides the sampling time.

libmapper also provides helper functions for getting the current device-time, setting the value of a Timetag from other representations, and comparing or copying timetags. Check the API documentation for more information.

Working with signal instances

libmapper also provides support for signals with multiple instances, for example:

The important qualities of signal instances in libmapper are:

All signals possess one instance by default. If you would like to reserve more instances you can use:

sig.reserve_instances( int num )

After reserving instances you can update a specific instance, for example:

sig.update_instance( int instance_id,
                     void *value,
                     int count,
                     Timetag timetag)

All of the arguments except one should be familiar from the documentation of update() presented earlier. The instance_id argument does not have to be considered as an array index - it can be any integer that is convenient for labelling your instance. libmapper will internally create a map from your id label to one of the preallocated instance structures.

Receiving instances

You might have noticed earlier that the handler function called when a signal update is received has a argument called instance_id. Here is the function prototype again:

void mapper_signal_update_handler(mapper::Signal msig,
                                  int instance_id,
                                  void *value,
                                  int count,
                                  mapper::Timetag tt);

Under normal usage, this argument will have a value (0 <= n <= num_instances) and can be used as an array index. Remember that you will need to reserve instances for your input signal using sig.reserve_instances() if you want to receive instance updates.

Instance Stealing

For handling cases in which the sender signal has more instances than the receiver signal, the instance allocation mode can be set for an input signal to set an action to take in case all allocated instances are in use and a previously unseen instance id is received. Use the function:

sig.set_instance_allocation_mode( instance_allocation_type mode );

The argument mode can have one of the following values:

If you want to use another method for determining which active instance to release (e.g. the sound with the lowest volume), you can create an instance_event_handler for the signal and write the method yourself:

void my_handler(mapper::Signal msig,
                int instance_id,
                msig_instance_event_t event,
                mapper::Timetag tt)
{
    // user code chooses which instance to release
    int id = choose_instance_to_release(msig);

    msig.release_instance(id, tt);
}

For this function to be called when instance stealing is necessary, we need to register it for IN_OVERFLOW events:

msig.set_instance_event_callback( my_handler,
                                  IN_OVERFLOW,
                                  *user_context);

Publishing metadata

Things like device names, signal units, and ranges, are examples of metadata--information about the data you are exposing on the network.

libmapper also provides the ability to specify arbitrary extra metadata in the form of name-value pairs. These are not interpreted by libmapper in any way, but can be retrieved over the network. This can be used for instance to give a device X and Y information, or to perhaps give a signal some property like "reliability", or some category like "light", "motor", "shaker", etc.

Some GUI implementing a Monitor could then use this information to display information about the network in an intelligent manner.

Any time there may be extra knowledge about a signal or device, it is a good idea to represent it by adding such properties, which can be of any OSC-compatible type. (So, numbers and strings, etc.)

The property interface is through the functions,

void dev.properties.set( <name>, <value> );

void sig.set_property( <name>, <value> );

The <value> arguments can be a scalar, array or std::vector of type int, float, double, or char*.

For example, to store a float indicating the X position of a device, you can call it like this:

dev.set_property( "x", 12.5f );
sig.set_property( "sensingMethod", "resistive" );

In general you can use any property name not already in use by the device or signal data structure. Reserved words for signals are:

device_name, direction, length, max, min, name, type, unit, user_data;

for devices, they are:

host, port, name, user_data.

By the way, if you query or set signal properties using these keywords, you will get or modify the same information that is available directly from the mapper::DeviceProps data structure. Therefore this can provide a unified string-based method for accessing any signal property:

mapper::SignalProps props = sig.properties();
mapper::Property = props.get("sensingMethod");

Primarily this is an interface meant for network monitors, but may come in useful for an application implementing a device.